Ferromanganese Crusts

Cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts occur at shallower depths of <400 to about > 5000 meters in areas of significant volcanic activity. In many cases, the deposits occur within the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the countries. Similar in general composition to the polymetallic nodules, cobalt crusts are attracting investment in exploration for higher cobalt percentage (up to 2%), platinum (0.0001%) and Rare Earth Elements (REE) besides Nickel and Manganese. The commercial interest in the cobalt crust is recent. The International Seabed Authority (ISA – see definition) has signed exploration contracts for cobalt-rich crusts with Japan, China and Russia.”