Key deep-sea metals

Cobalt: Cobalt is used in batteries, magnets and pigments and colouring. There are estimated to be about 6.6 million tons in reserves around the world (land and sea), 52 % in Congo. Copper: Copper has many electronic applications, such as generators, transformers, PCs, TVs, mobile phones (65 % of copper is used for this) and automobile (7 %). There are estimated to be about 140 million tons in reserves around the world. Iron: Iron is primarily used for steel production (>90 % is used for this), also for automobiles, ships and trains. There are estimated to be about 230 billion tones in reserves around the world. Manganese: Manganese is used primarily in steel production (>85 % is used for this). There are estimated to be about 540 million tons in reserves around the world. Nickel: Nickel is primarily used for making steel (>46 % is used for this) and nonferrous allows and super alloys (>34 %). There are estimated to be about 71 million tons in reserves around the world.